08 Named Entities

Named entities (NEs) are nouns and noun phrases that specifically designate a person, location, organisation or other distinct object existing in real space and time, In a broader sense, they can also include (possessive) adjectives derived from a person's name, such as DERIV-PER[Obamova] izvolitev). In Slovene, named entities are typically indicated orthographically by capitalization (e.g., "Slovenska tiskovna agencija") or abbreviations (e.g., "STA"). It's important to note, however, that a capital letter or an abbreviation doesn't always signify a named entity (e.g. the Slovene acronym BDP, translated to 'GDP' in English, represents a common noun phrase). The ability to accurately identify named entities in text plays a crucial role in numerous natural language processing tasks, including information extraction, coreference resolution, sentiment analysis, and more.

Introduction to Labels

This chapter summarises labels for named entities (NEs). A more detailed presentation can be found in the guidelines in the Annotation Guidelines chapter.

Category Subcategory Examples Doesn't belong in the category
PER some white text Person (name and/or surname) Janez Novak, da Vinci, Ludvik XIV. dr., gospa, sv.
Pet name Fifi
Artistic name, pseudonym Madonna, mati Terez(ij)a, Banksy
Fictional characters (from books, films etc.) Ana Karenina, Rdeča kapica
Nicknames (Boštjan Gorenc -) Pižama, Zvezdica89
Named group of people (placerelated or family name) Angleži, Nemec, Ljubljančan; Novakovi
Twitter mentions @pizama, @Nike
DERIV-PER some white text Personal possessive adjectives Novakov (pes) Alzheimerjeva (bolezen)
ORG Organizations EU, Nato, Rimskokatoliška cerkev parlament, vlada
Companies Microsoft, Pasadena d.o.o.
Airport operators Aerodrom Ljubljana Letališče Jožeta Pučnika
Educational institutions Filozofska fakulteta
Institutes  Institut “Jožef Stefan”
Museums, libraries  Prirodoslovni muzej
Theatres, cinemas etc.  MGL, Kinodvor
Media (TV, radio, newspaper etc.)  Dnevnik, Delo, Radio Center
Restaurants, hotels, bars, pubs etc.  Kavarna Zvezda, [hH]otel Lev
Healthcare facilities  [zZ]dravstveni dom Ribnica
Music bands and other art-related groups  U2, Beatli, [aA]nsambel Avsenik
Other public and private institutions  [oO]bčina Piran, NPK
Political parties, civic societies, NGOs  DeSUS, Zveza potrošnikov Slovenije
Sports clubs, associations  (HDD SIJ) Acroni Jesenice, (FC) Barcelona
Cultural organizations (also amateur)  [mM]ešani pevski zbor Divača
LOC Celestial bodies (planets, comets etc.)  Mars, Andromeda, Halleyjev komet
Continents  Južna Amerika
Countries, provinces, lands (historic and modern)  Slovenija, Združene države (Amerike) EU
Regions  Primorska, Valonija, Nova Anglija
Cities and settlements (including parts)  Ljubljana, Šiška, Vrhnika, Na klancu
Streets, squares  Jamova cesta 39  A2, gorenjska AC
Shopping centres  Citypark, Supernova
Airports  Letališče Jožeta Pučnika
Churches (named building)  [cC]erkev sv. Nikolaja Rimskokatoliška cerkev
Local sights (cultural, natural)  Tromostovje, Triglavski narodni park
Other named buildings (without org. structure) [kK]ulturni dom Ljubno, WTC 2 Cankarjev dom (ima org. strukturo, npr. direktorja)
Mountains, lakes, rivers and other named geographical objects Triglav, Blejsko jezero, Sava, Logarska dolina
MISC Computer systems, programs, apps Windows 10, Word, Android 5.1 Lollipop  .docx, pdf, OCR
Titles of books, films, paintings and other works of art; titles of documents Vojna in mir, Ko jagenjčki obmolknejo, Sopranovi, Guernica; Uradni list RS
Registered names or models of products (cars, mobile phones, computers, games etc.) and other commercial products (brands) Galaxy Note 7, Nokia Lumia 950, Toyota RAV4, Minecraft, Človek ne jezi se
Titles of events Oskarji, Zlata lisica, 10. mednarodna konferenca Jezikovne tehnologije shod nacifašistov
Project names Obzorje 2020
Stock market indices SBI20,  Dow Jones, Nasdaq  Bonitetne ocene (AAA)

Annotation Guidelines

This chapter summarizes the annotation guidelines for named entity recognition (NER) as applied to Slovene texts. The guidelines are arranged from the latest, up-to-date version to the oldest version.

Version 1.1
Project Development of Slovene in a Digital Environment

ZUPAN, Katja; LJUBEŠIĆ, Nikola in ERJAVEC, Tomaž, 2023: Annotation guidelines for Slovenian named entities Janes-NER: Version 1.1. Clean copy for the Development of Slovene in a Digital Environment project. [PDF]

References and Links

This chapter compiles relevant references and provides links to projects where named entity recognition (NER) has been developed and applied to Slovene texts.

Projects, in which the system has been developed
MUC-6 Named Entity Task Definition
CONLL 2003
BSNLP 2017 shared task
Janes - Resources, Tools and Methods for the Research of Nonstandard Internet Slovene

Marc Reznicek: Linguistische Annotation von Nichtstandardvarietäten / Guidelines und „Best Practices" Guidelines NER (version 1.5). https://www.linguistik.huberlin.de/de/institut/professuren/korpuslinguistik/forschung/nosta-d/nosta-d-ner-1.5

LDC - Linguistic Data Consortium: ACE (Automatic Content Extraction) English Annotation Guidelines for Entities, Version 6.6 2008.06.13, http://projects.ldc.upenn.edu/ace (Accessed on 2 November 2020).