10 Semantic Role Labeling

Semantic role labeling (SRL), also known as semantic annotation, is the process of attributing semantic roles, such as agent, patient, or location, to the semantic arguments defined by a predicate or verb within a sentence. For Slovene, the system of semantic-role annotation, along with its semantic categories (or tags), draws upon the Prague Dependency Treebank system (PDT 2.0). This system, as applied in the Valency Lexicon of Czech Verbs (Vallex), has been tailored to the syntactic and semantic characteristics of Slovene.

Introduction to Tags

This chapter summarises the tags for semantic-role labelling. A more detailed presentation can be found in the guidelines in the Annotation Guidelines chapter.

Tagsome text Semantic Role Desription Example
ACTsome text actorso acting participant, originator or bearer of the action, logical subject Zgodilo se je mesec dni po tem, ko sem izvedel, da me žena.ACT vara. Zdela se mi.ACT je veliko bolj vsakdanja.
PATsome text patientsomeso affected object of the action Kuhajo kosilo.PAT. Županja je včeraj sklicala sestanek.PAT.; Dogodek v Ankaranu je bila dramatična nesreča.PAT.
REC some text addressee / benefactorsomesomesomesomesomesome receiver, indirect participant of the action; non-acting participant benefiting or suffering from the action; characteristics of the object's possessor; communicative function (ethical dative) Miha je Maji.REC ujel pobeglega kanarčka. To sliko je narisal otrokom/za otroke.REC. Glava mu.REC počasi pada na prsi. Teče mu.REC za vrat. Ura mi.REC dobro dela. To ti.REC je žurka. Otroci nam.REC nočejo priti domov.
ORIG some text origin / inheritencesomeme the initial state, origin/source/motive of the action; person (group) from whom someone inherits, adopts, receives something Pohištvo izdelujemo iz lesa.ORIG. Plašč je dobil po očetu.ORIG. Iz dobro obveščenih virov.ORIG smo izvedeli, da …
RESLTsome text effect effect, result, goal of the action Imenovali so ga za predsednika.RESLT. Rok je dvoumen.RESLT.
TIMEsome text temporal: when / temporal: parallel / temporal: from when / temporal: to when specific moment or interval of the action; moment or interval originating from the action; moment or interval following the action Odrinemo ob zori.TIME.. Med počitnicami.TIME ni niti enkrat posijalo sonce. Sestanek je prestavil s četrtka.TIME na petek.TIME.
DURsome text temporal: for how long / temporal: how long / temporal: since when / temporal: till duration of the state; duration of the action; specific moment of start; specific moment of end Prišel je za en mesec.DUR. To mu je uspelo narediti v enem tednu.DUR. Od jutri.DUR dalje sem na dopustu. Do četrtka.DUR uredim še papirje.
FREQ temporal: how often frequency of the action Vsak dan.FREQ se mučimo s tem.
LOC locative / directional: which way specific location, place, site of the action; direction in space Sprehajajo se po gozdu.LOC.
SOURCE directional: from starting point in space S stropa.SOURCE odpada omet.
GOAL directional: where to ending point in space Prišel je domov.GOAL
EVENTsome text temporal-locative event time-space specific event Sodelovati v skupnih akcijah.EVENT. Sploh ni padel v vojni.EVENT.
AIM aim / intent purpose of the action; purpose of movement Telovadi, da bi shujšala.AIM.. Poslali so ga po malico.AIM.
CAUSE cause cause of the action Umrl je zaradi srčne kapi.CAUSE.
CONTRsome text concession / contradiction unexpected consequentiality of the action Študijskim uspehom.CONTR navkljub službe ni dobil. Medtem ko se plače nižajo.CONTR, cene rastejo.
COND condition condition for the existence of the action Če neha deževati.COND, gremo na kavo.
REG regard / criterion / comparison in regard to; key criterion (rule) for evaluating the action; comparison Glede na vreme.REG ni mogoče ugotoviti … Preiskava je potekala v skladu z zakonom.REG. Za razliko.REG od mene ima posluh.
ACMP accompaniment object, person, or event that accompanies the action or other participants Mama je s sinom.ACMP odšla v cirkus.
RESTR restriction exception, limitation Vsi so bili tam razen tebe.REST.
MANN some text manner / result manner aspect of the action; result at the end of the action Dela prepočasi.MANN. Govori tako potiho.MANN, da ničesar ne razumem.
MEANS means means or tool for executing the action Piše s peresom.MEANS.
QUANT difference / extent qualitative difference between events, states, objects; measure, range, or intensity of the action or circumstance Cena goriva se je podražila za 3 cente.QUANT. Za znamko je plačal 50 evrov.QUANT.
MWPREDsome text some text some te multi-word predicate phrases with infinitives; phasal and non-modal verbs Dati vedeti.MWPRED., Klinov ni videti.MWPRED nikjer. Se lahko nauči nasilju reči.MWPRED »ne«.
MODAL modal phrase phrases of modal verb and infinitive; phrases of 'biti' + modal adverb Za neposredni prenos jih niso želeli prikrajšati.MODAL. je treba.MODAL poudariti
PHRAS dependant part of phraseological unit dependent part of a verbal phraseological unit Iti na živce.PHRAS. Mi je beseda ostala v grlu.PHRAS.

Annotation Guidelines

This chapter summarizes the annotation guidelines for semantic-role labelling as applied to Slovene texts. The guidelines are arranged from the latest, up-to-date version to the oldest version.

Version 1.0 (02-2023)
Project Development of Slovene in a Digital Environment

GANTAR, Polona, KREK, Simon, DOBROVOLJC, Kaja, ŠKRJANEC, Iza, MOŽE, Sara in MARKO, Dafne, 2022: Smernice za semantično označevanje učnega korpusa v1.0. Rezultat projekta Razvoj slovenščine v digitalnem okolju. [DOCX] [PDF] - only in Slovene

References and Links

This chapter compiles relevant references and provides links to projects where semantic-role labelling has been developed and applied to Slovene texts.

Projects, in which the system has been developed:
Communication in Slovene
Semantic Role Labeling in Slovene and Croatian
XLike - Cross-lingual Knowledge Extraction
Development of Slovene in a Digital Environment

References:
GANTAR, Polona; STRKALJ DESPOT, Kristina; KREK, Simon in LJUBEŠIĆ, Nikola. 2018. Towards semantic role labeling in Slovene and Croatian. V: FIŠER, Darja (ur.), PANČUR, Andrej (ur.). Zbornik konference Jezikovne tehnologije in digitalna humanistika, 20. september - 21. september 2018, Ljubljana, Slovenija. 1. izdaja. Ljubljana: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete, 2018. Str. 93-98, ilustr. ISBN 978-961-06-0111-1. http://nl.ijs.si/jtdh18/JTDH-2018-Proceedings.pdf.

KREK, Simon, GANTAR, Polona, DOBROVOLJC, Kaja, ŠKRJANEC, Iza. Označevanje udeleženskih vlog v učnem korpusu za slovenščino. V: ERJAVEC, Tomaž (ur.), FIŠER, Darja (ur.). Zbornik konference Jezikovne tehnologije in digitalna humanistika, 29. september - 1. oktober 2016, Filozofska fakulteta, Univerza v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, Slovenija. 1. izd. V Ljubljani: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete, 2016. Str. 106-110. http://www.sdjt.si/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/JTDH-2016_Krek-et-al_Oznacevanje-udelezenskih-vlog-v-ucnem-korpusu-za-slovenscino.pdf.

MIKULOVÁ, Marie et al. 2006. Annotation on the tectogrammatical level in the Prague Dependency Treebank. Aannotation manual. Technical Report 30. 5–11.

VALLEX = The Valency Lexicon of Czech Verbs. https://ufal.mff.cuni.cz/vallex

PDT 2.0 = https://ufal.mff.cuni.cz/pdt2.0/doc/manuals/en/t-layer/html/index.html