Skip to main content

07 Universal Dependencies

Universal Dependencies (UD) is an internationally harmonised annotation framework that aims to standardize the morphological and syntactic tagging of texts across languages in order to foster the development of multilingual language technologies and contrastive linguistics research. Grounded in dependency grammar principles, UD provides a universal set of grammatical categories – including parts of speech (POS), morphological features and syntactic dependency relations – and guidelines for their use. The framework is flexible, incorporating language-specific tags as needed. To date, over 240 corpora worldwide have been manually tagged using the framework, including the universal treebanks of both written and spoken Slovene.